It has been demonstrated recently that supercooled liquids sharing simple structural features (e.g. pair distribution functions) may exhibit strikingly distinct dynamical behavior. Here we show that a more subtle structural feature correlates with relaxation times in three simulated systems that have nearly identical radial distribution functions but starkly different dynamical behavior. In particular, for the first time we determine the thermodynamic “point-to-set” length scale in several canonical model systems and demonstrate the quantitative connection between this length scale and the growth of relaxation times. Our results provide clues necessary for distinguishing competing theories of the glass transition.